Every country and state has its language and due to this language people can understand each other’s words. In the same way, a computer also has its language which a computer understands and calculates and gives the results. A programming language is a computer language designed by computer scholars to develop applications on computers. Like the traditional language, programming languages have their grammar, and it also has letters, words, sentences, etc.
Types of Programming Languages:
There are many types of programming languages. We understand some and some only understand computer. The languages that only computer understands are usually called low-level language, and the languages which we can understand are called high level language.
Low-Level Languages do not include any translator to convert their signals into machine signals are called low-level languages, that is, there is no need to translate the code of low-level language in some way. It happens. Machine Language and Assembly Language are two examples of this language. It is difficult to use these languages in a program. In-depth knowledge about hardware is required to use this language. It takes a considerable amount of time and the chances of errors are very high. Their execution is faster than high-level language. These are of two types -
- Machine Language.
- Assembly Language.
The computer system only interprets the signs of digits, which is a binary 1 or 0. Therefore, instructions are given to the computer only in binary code 1 or 0 and the instructions which are given in binary code are called machine language. Machine Level Language is simple for the machine and difficult for the programmer. Maintaining machine language programs is also very difficult. Because there are more chances of error in it. Machine Language works differently on each computer system, so codes of one computer cannot run on another computer.
In the assembly language, instructions are given in the form of English words, such as NOV, ADD, SUB etc., it is called “mnemonic code” (mnemonic code). Assembly language is easier to understand compared to machine language but as we know that computer is an electronic device and it only understands binary code, so the program which is written in assembly language , He has to translate into machine level language. A translator that translates assembly language into machine language is called assembler.
Data is stored in a computer register and each computer has its own separate register set, so programs written in assembly language are not convenient. This means that for another computer system we have to translate it again.
High Level Language.
High-level language is designed keeping in mind the characteristics of being convenient, which means that this language depends on the machine. This language is similar to the English language code, so it is easy to code or understand. This requires a Translator, which translates high-level language programs into machine code. Examples are — FORTRAN, BASIC, COBOL, PASCAL, C © , C ++ (C ++), Java (JAVA), VISUAL BASIC, Visual Basic.net HTML, Sun Studio etc. is the language of this category, it has been divided into two generations.
- Third Generation Language.
- Fourth generation language.
Third Generation Language.
Third Generation Languages were the first languages that freed programmers from writing programs in machine and assembly languages. Third-generation languages were not machine-dependent, so there was no need to understand the architecture of the machine to write programs. In addition, programs became portable, due to which programs could be copied from one computer to another with their compiler and interpreter. Some of the highly popular third-generation languages include FORTRAN, BASIC, COBOL, COBOL, PASCAL, C ©, C ++ (C ++) etc.
Fourth Generation Language.
Fourth Generation Language is easier to use than third-generation language. Generally, the fourth generation languages have a visual environment, whereas the third generation languages had a textual environment. In a textual environment, programmers use English words to create the Source Code. One line statement of fourth-generation languages is equivalent to 8 line statement of the third generation.